Press releases

Black homeownership rate rises, but hasn't returned to 2004 level

May 29, 2024

The gap between Black and white homeownership rates closed over the pandemic, but disparities remain 

  • Nearly 1 in 4 Black mortgage applicants are denied, versus 1 in 10 white applicants.
  • Credit history is the most common reason given for denying a Black applicant.
  • If the typical home was worth $1, Black-owned homes would be worth 85 cents and white-owned homes worth $1.03

SEATTLE, May 29, 2024 /PRNewswire/ -- The homeownership rate for Black households has grown faster than average since 2019, but it's still below the high-water mark reached in 2004, before the Great Recession. 

Insufficient credit is holding many Black households back from homeownership. Nearly 1 in 4 mortgage applications from Black borrowers — 24% — are denied, according to 2023 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data, which can be explored on this interactive Zillow® dashboard on housing inequality.

That's almost twice the rate of all applicants (12.6%) and far higher than the 1-in-10 denial rate for white applicants1. Of those mortgages denied Black applicants, more than 43% are turned down due to credit history – the most common reason given. That's a higher rate than in past years and also when compared to 32% of denials for white applicants. 

"While discriminatory policies like redlining have long been outlawed, the damage from these historic practices is still felt today. Many communities once barred from accessing credit are now finance deserts, with few traditional financial institutions, making it harder to build credit and buy a house," said Zillow senior economist Orphe Divounguy. "That's why it's so important to expand credit access. Allowing rent payments to count in credit scores is one example of how to move the industry forward."

Today, nearly 46% of Black households own their home, an improvement from a low point of 43% in 2019, but still down from a 49.7% peak ownership rate reached in 2004, before the Great Recession, and far off from the 74% rate for white households. Many Black households have been left out of major wealth gains during that time. Since the Black homeownership rate peaked in 2004, U.S. home values have more than doubled, rising 117%. 

Although the gap between white homeownership rates and those of Black and Hispanic households has diminished since 2019, the deficit is still large and contributes to vast inequalities in wealth. 

The single largest asset for most homeowners is their house, and it's a major means of building wealth and passing it on to the next generation. Zillow Research found a $3 trillion wealth gap between Black and white families. Nearly 40% of the gap — $1.18 trillion — could be credited to disparities in home values and ownership. 

Despite rising faster than average since 2019, Black-owned home values are still far lower than average. If the typical home was worth $1, Black-owned homes would be worth 85 cents and white-owned homes worth $1.03

How Zillow leverages technology to understand and address housing inequality and accessibility challenges. 

  • Rent payments made to landlords on the Zillow Rentals platform can now count toward a renter's credit score. Zillow is pushing for systemic, national changes on this front, advocating for bipartisan legislation that would encourage property owners and utility and telecom providers to report payment data to credit reporting agencies. This would give consumers who pay their bills on time the chance to build a positive credit history.
  • Home shoppers can see what down payment assistance programs they could qualify for on every Zillow listing, saving shoppers the hassle of looking up their eligibility on various government websites. 
  • Continuing its investment in new technology to address biases and inequalities in housing, Zillow recently released the open-source Fair Housing Classifier. This free and easy-to-access new tool establishes guardrails to help prevent historic biases from resurfacing in real estate conversations powered by large language model (LLM) technology.

1 For conventional purchases of a primary residence.

About Zillow Group
Zillow Group, Inc. (Nasdaq: Z and ZG) is reimagining real estate to make home a reality for more and more people. As the most visited real estate website in the United States, Zillow and its affiliates help people find and get the home they want by connecting them with digital solutions, dedicated partners and agents, and easier buying, selling, financing and renting experiences. 

Zillow Group's affiliates, subsidiaries and brands include Zillow®, Zillow Premier Agent®, Zillow Home Loans℠, Trulia®, Out East®, StreetEasy®, HotPads®, ShowingTime+, Spruce® and Follow Up Boss®. 

All marks herein are owned by MFTB Holdco, Inc., a Zillow affiliate. Zillow Home Loans, LLC is an Equal Housing Lender, NMLS #10287 ( © 2023 MFTB Holdco, Inc., a Zillow affiliate.



For further information: Mark Stayton, Zillow,