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Home-buying costs could soar 22% if US defaults on its debt

May 11, 2023

A debt default is very unlikely, but new scenario projections from Zillow show sales would decrease sharply as mortgage costs balloon

  • Mortgage rates could reach 8.4% in the unlikely event of a debt default, sending the mortgage payment on a typical home 22% higher by September.
  • Home values would not lose much ground, according to Zillow's analysis, but a sharp rise in mortgage rates would do further damage to housing affordability.
  • Home sales activity might fall by nearly one-quarter from current projections at its lowest point, in September.

SEATTLE, May 11, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- The U.S. government defaulting on its debt, which could become a reality as soon as June 1 without intervention, could send the typical cost of a mortgage soaring by 22%. Mortgage rates rising above 8% would likely overwhelm a small price dip to make affording a home an even steeper hill to climb and send home sales tumbling, according to a new Zillow® analysis.

To be sure, the U.S. has never before defaulted on its debt, and it is very unlikely that the U.S. will fail to pay its debts now. This analysis projects what might happen in the unlikely worst-case scenario of a prolonged default, and it is not a prediction that a default will occur.

"Home buyers and sellers finally have been adjusting to mortgage rates over 6% this spring, but a debt default could potentially raise borrowing costs even higher and send the market into a deep freeze," said Zillow senior economist Jeff Tucker. "Home values might not see a notable drop, but higher mortgage rates would severely impair affordability, for first-time buyers especially. It is critically important to find a solution and not put more strain on Americans who are striving to achieve their homeownership dreams."

A debt default would almost certainly mean severe disruption for the economy, with the ripple effects taking their toll on the housing market. One highly likely consequence would be rising interest rates — including mortgage rates — as shaken confidence in Treasury bills being repaid means investors would require a greater return before purchasing them. Mortgage rates tend to follow Treasury rates and would be expected to rise as a result.

Home shoppers already are finding few options they can afford this spring, and it's estimated that a mortgage would cost 22% more in September in the event of a debt default than it otherwise would. That's on top of an 82% rise over the past two years.

A steep rise in mortgage rates — projected to peak at 8.4% in September in this scenario — would freeze sales in an already chilled market. If the affordability mountain grows even taller, fewer would-be buyers will be able to purchase a home. Higher mortgage rates also discourage homeowners, many of whom locked in their loans when mortgage rates were near 3%, from selling and reentering the market when their new loan would be much more costly.

Zillow projects this combined impact of buyers and sellers pulling back would wipe nearly one-quarter of expected sales off the board in some months. If there were to be a debt default, the biggest projected deficit would come in September, with an estimated 23% fewer existing home sales.

The thin silver lining for the overall health of the housing market is that Zillow economists don't expect home values would lose much ground, even with a default. Home values have turned the corner this spring, returning to growth near historical norms after a period of overheating and then a short-lived downturn. Home values tend to fall sharply when there is a glut of listings flooding the market, but very low inventory in this scenario would act as a parachute, keeping prices from falling too far, too fast.

Zillow forecasts that if the U.S. were to default on its debt, home values would begin to fall starting in August, but only by 1% from current levels through February 2024. Even in this pessimistic scenario, home values are expected to rise 1% from today to the end of next year. That's down from a current expectation of 6.5% growth over that period.

About Zillow Group
Zillow Group, Inc. (NASDAQ: Z and ZG) is reimagining real estate to make home a reality for more and more people. As the most visited real estate website in the United States, Zillow and its affiliates help people find and get the home they want by connecting them with digital solutions, great partners, and easier buying, selling, financing and renting experiences.

Zillow Group's affiliates, subsidiaries and brands include Zillow®; Zillow Premier Agent®; Zillow Home Loans℠; Zillow Closing Services℠; Trulia®; Out East®; StreetEasy®; HotPads®; and ShowingTime+, which includes ShowingTime®, Bridge Interactive®, and dotloop®.

All marks herein are owned by MFTB Holdco, Inc., a Zillow affiliate. Zillow Home Loans, LLC is an Equal Housing Lender, NMLS #10287 ( © 2023 MFTB Holdco, Inc., a Zillow affiliate.



For further information: Alex Lacter, Zillow,